Slide Presentation

TITLE    (click title to view slides)

AUTHOR
Dr. Stanley Culpepper
University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
Dr. Ted Webster
USDA-ARS, Tifton, GA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. Weed Control Without Methyl Bromide
  2. Phasing out of the Marketplace
  3. Global Methyl Bromide Use
  4. Countries Using Methyl Bromide
  5. Replacing Methyl Bromide
  6. Nutsedge
  7. Nutsedge tubers
  8. Spatial Dynamics of Nutsedge
  9. Nutsedge Density
  10. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management?
  11. Soil temperature under plastic
  12. Preliminary Conclusions: Lethal Temperature/Duration of Exposure
  13. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management?
  14. Weeds Controlled with Methyl Bromide
  15. Telone II, Telone C-17/35, Chloropicrin
  16. Telone Comparison
  17. Weeds Controlled with Metam Sodium
  18. Metam Sodium and Nutsedge
  19. Methyl Bromide Comparison
  20. Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash - Methyl Bromide
  21. Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash - Telone C-35
  22. Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash - Telone II + Chloropicrin + Vapam
  23. Telone II + Chloropicrin + Vapam Comparison
  24. Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic - Methyl Iodine
  25. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management?
  26. Sandea
  27. Sandea for Vegetable Weed Control
  28. Yellow Nutsedge Control with Sandea Applied PRE in Watermelon
  29. Yellow Nutsedge Control with Sandea Applied POST in Watermelon
  30. Nontreated Compared to Sandea
  31. Sandea Potential Crops
  32. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Spring, 2000
  33. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Spring, 2000
  34. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Fall, 2000
  35. Sandea Potential Crops
  36. Nontreated Compared to Sandea
  37. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied PRE in Watermelon
  38. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied POST to 3-inch Watermelon
  39. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied POST to 14-inch Watermelon



SLIDE CONTENTS
  1. PPT Slide Weed Control Without Methyl Bromide Drs. Stanley Culpepper and Ted Webster University of Georgia and USDA-ARS Tifton, Georgia
  2. PPT Slide Methyl Bromide Phasing out of the marketplace 1999 = 25% reduction 2001 = 25% reduction 2003 = 20% reduction 2005 = gone (reduce methyl bromide ai over time)
  3. PPT Slide 66%
  4. PPT Slide
  5. Replacing Methyl Bromide A multi-tactic approach is needed and should include the following: application of weed biology cultural practices fumigants herbicides
  6. PPT Slide Yellow Nutsedge: - Yellow florets - All tubers attached to mother tuber - Suppressed by bentazon and metolachlor - Leaves: long drawn-out tip Purple Nutsedge: - Dark red/purple florets - Forms chains of tubers - Not suppressed with bentazon or metolachlor - Leaves: short, abrupt tip
  7. PPT Slide Chain of Purple Nutsedge Tubers
  8. PPT Slide Yellow Nutsedge Purple Nutsedge Objective: Evaluate the Spatial Dynamics of Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Expansion After 3 Months (From a Single Planted Tuber)
  9. PPT Slide
  10. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management? Soil Solarization/Organic Amendments Requires a hot and cloudless climate Studies have shown that: solarization can reduce pests prior to planting crop yields can be increased effects can be extended through several seasons Research has focused on pathogens and nematodes - only a handful of studies on weeds
  11. PPT Slide How hot does the soil temperature get underneath plastic? Is it hot enough to kill nutsedge?
  12. Preliminary Conclusions Lethal Temperature/Duration of Exposure: Yellow Nutsedge: 113 F for 8 hours = > 90% Tuber Viability 122+ F for 15 minutes = < 50% Tuber Viability Purple Nutsedge: 122 F for 8 hours = > 70% Tuber Viability 131 F for 4 hours = < 20% Tuber Viability 140 F for 1 hour = < 5% Tuber Viability How hot can we get our soils? How long can they stay this hot?
  13. PPT Slide Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management? Fumigants: Chloropicrin Metam Sodium Methyl Iodide Telone, Telone II Telone C17/C35
  14. PPT Slide Methyl Bromide chickweed crabgrass goosegrass crowfootgrass pigweed morningglory? purslane nutgrass
  15. PPT Slide Telone II, Telone C-17/35, Chloropicrin No mention of specific weeds controlled
  16. PPT Slide Non-treated Telone Broadcast Telone In Bed 25 GPA 35 GPA Photos taken from Florida Field Day. Bill Stall, 2000.
  17. PPT Slide Metam Sodium chickweed dandelion ragweed lambsquarters pigweed nightshades purslane nutsedge, morningglory - suppression
  18. PPT Slide Metam Sodium Nutsedge 1) May be suppressed if actively growing and a high use rate is applied (75 gal/A). 2) More often roots and shoots will be controlled, but the tuber will remain viable and re-grow at a later time.
  19. PPT Slide METHYL BROMIDE: 400 LBS (98%) NONTREATED CONTROL
  20. PPT Slide Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash: Shoots/Plot Methyl Bromide (392 Lbs/A - Fumigated): 1998: 99% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 99% lower than UTC (*)
  21. PPT Slide Telone C-35 EC (12 Gal/A) - Drip: 1998: 81% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 40% greater than UTC (NS) Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash: Shoots/Plot Methyl Bromide (392 Lbs/A - Fumigated): 1998: 99% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 99% lower than UTC (*)
  22. PPT Slide Telone C-35 EC (12 Gal/A) - Drip: 1998: 81% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 40% greater than UTC (NS) Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic in Squash: Shoots/Plot Methyl Bromide (392 Lbs/A - Fumigated): 1998: 99% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 99% lower than UTC (*) Telone II + Chloropicrin + Vapam (12 Gal/A - Chisel ) and (6.6 + 50 Gal/A - Drip): 1999 Early Season: 76% lower than UTC (*) 1999 Late Season: 22% greater than UTC (NS)
  23. PPT Slide Nontreated Control Telone II + Chloropicrin + Vapam (12 Gal/A - Chisel ) and (6.6 + 50 Gal/A - Drip) 13 Days After Treatment
  24. PPT Slide Methyl Iodide (392 Lbs/A - Drip): 1998: 81% lower than UTC (*) 1999: 21% greater than UTC (NS) Purple Nutsedge Through Plastic: Shoots/Plot
  25. PPT Slide Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Weed Management? Herbicides Limited # of Registered Compounds Cucurbits (3-5) - no nutsedge materials Eggplant (4) - no nutsedge materials Pepper (5) - no nutsedge materials Squash (4) - no nutsedge materials Tomato (7) - Tillam for nutsedge suppression IR-4 is working to increase this list
  26. PPT Slide Sandea Gowan Halosulfuron-methyl 75% active ingredient MAY be labeled in FL in 2001 Ever labeled in GA???? Rate unknown -- probably 0.024 lb ai/A
  27. PPT Slide Sandea for Vegetable Weed Control 1-3 inch 1-9 inch passionflower cocklebur redroot pigweed ragweed pokeweed velvetleaf yellow nutsedge - suppression purple nutsedge - suppression 2 to 3 weeks residual weed control
  28. Yellow Nutsedge Control with Sandea Applied PRE in Watermelon.* *In cooperation with Ken Lewis, Crisp County, 2000. Rating 21 days after treatment. % control
  29. Yellow Nutsedge Control with Sandea Applied POST in Watermelon.* % control *In cooperation with Ken Lewis, Crisp County, 2000. Rating 21 days after treatment.
  30. Nontreated Sandea (0.024 lb ai/A)
  31. PPT Slide Sandea Potential Crops (in order of crop tolerance?) tomato
  32. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Spring, 2000.* *In cooperation with Joel Hudgins, Decatur County, 2000.
  33. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Spring, 2000.* *In cooperation with Joel Hudgins, Decatur County, 2000.
  34. Number of Tomato Boxes Per Acre After Sandea Treatments. Fall, 2000.* *In cooperation with Joel Hudgins, Decatur County, 2000.
  35. PPT Slide Sandea Potential Crops (in order of crop tolerance?) tomato cucumber pumpkin cantaloupe watermelon
  36. PPT Slide Nontreated Sandea (0.024 lb ai/A) Watermelon farm in Crisp County, May 2000. Treatment at 1-leaf.
  37. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied PRE in Watermelon.* *In cooperation with Ken Lewis, Crisp County, 2000. Rating 21 days after treatment. % injury
  38. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied POST to 3-inch Watermelon.* *In cooperation with Ken Lewis, Crisp County, 2000. Rating 5 days after treatment. % injury
  39. Watermelon Injury with Sandea Applied POST to 14-inch Watermelon.* *In cooperation with Ken Lewis, Crisp County, 2000. Rating 5 days after treatment. % injury