Slide Presentation

TITLE    (click title to view slides)

AUTHOR
Stanley Culpepper
Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
University of Georgia

DOWNLOAD PRESENTATION    (right click and select 'Save Target As...')

TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. 2011: Impact of cover crop residue and tillage on the control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth
  2. Palmer amaranth control before and after GR Palmer resistance in cotton!
  3. Georgia counties confirmed to be infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
  4. Number of Seed Produced per Plant; Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in US
  5. Palmer amaranth seed production allows for rapid field domination
  6. Role of pollen movement and gene-flow in the spread of herbicide resistance
  7. In-field pollen movement
  8. GR pigweed in the mid-south and southeast
  9. Can not survive with herbicides alone any longer
  10. Hand Weeding
  11. Hand Weeding
  12. Grower mentality of tillage vs. conservation tillage
  13. Impact of GR Palmer amaranth in Georgia counties with severe infestations
  14. Tillage in Cotton During 2010
  15. LONG TERM GOAL
  16. Objective
  17. Roundup applied three times starting on Palmer provided no control
  18. Four Tillage Options
  19. Four Tillage Options
  20. Photo
  21. Photo
  22. Palmer amaranth control of 95% achieved by herbicide program!
  23. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage and cover crop residue. 2009 & 2010. 21 DAP.
  24. In the rye, control loss was in the strip
  25. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage, cover crop residue, and herbicides. 2009 & 2010 At harvest.
  26. Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage. Macon County, GA. 2009.
  27. Palmer amaranth response to cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009.
  28. Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage and cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009.
  29. GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield (lb/A) in the Roundup system.
  30. Dryland Conservation Tillage
  31. Applications must be timely with Ignite
  32. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage, cover crop residue, and herbicides. 2009 & 2010. At harvest.
  33. GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield in the Ignite system. 2009 & 2010
  34. ON FARM STUDIES - Tillage/Cover Crop Options
  35. Influencing Palmer Emergence
  36. Influencing Palmer Emergence
  37. Number of Palmer Amaranth Plants During Early Season. Macon Co., Georgia 2008
  38. Influence of burial depth on Palmer amaranth emergence
  39. Photo
  40. Palmer amaranth seed germination as affected by length of burial
  41. Palmer amaranth seed germination as affected by depth of burial
  42. SUSTAINING COTTON PRODUCTION
  43. Comments



SLIDE CONTENTS
  1. 2011: Impact of cover crop residue and tillage on the control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth
  2. Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Palmer amaranth control before and after GR Palmer resistance in cotton! Roundup Roundup Roundup
  3. Georgia counties confirmed to be infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. 2004 1 county 2005 2 counties 2006 7 counties 2007 11 counties 2008 18 counties 2009 13 counties
  4. 230 K 250 28 K 309 K Giant ragweed 450 K Number of Seed Produced per Plant Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in US Ragweed = Harrison et al. 2001; johnsongrass = Warwick and Black (1983); horseweed = Regehr and Bazzaz (1979); waterhemp = Nordby and Hartzler (2004); Palmer amaranth = Macrae et al (2009). Johnson-grass Horseweed Waterhemp Palmer amaranth
  5. Palmer amaranth seed production allows for rapid field domination Year 1 Year 3 to 4
  6. Role of pollen movement and gene-flow in the spread of herbicide resistance
  7. In-field pollen movement
  8. Amaranthus rudis Amaranthus palmeri Tennessee Missouri Illinois Mississippi Georgia S Carolina N Carolina Alabama Louisiana Arkansas GR pigweed in the mid-south and southeast Steckel 2010
  9. Can not survive with herbicides alone any longer
  10. York 2010 Hand Weeding 2010: Herbicide input: $90 million
  11. York 2010 Hand Weeding Over $16 million spent during 2010 ($23.70 on 53% of our acres) Over $15 million spend during 2009 92% of GA growers handweeding 53% of the 2010 crop
  12. Few growers Few growers Most growers by far Grower mentality of tillage vs. conservation tillage
  13. 5 % acres *Average of Macon, Taylor, Sumpter, Schley, and Dooly counties Herbicide Incorp. 0 Impact of GR Palmer amaranth in Georgia counties with severe infestations.*
  14. Tillage in Cotton During 2010
  15. Although the agricultural community is committed to the benefits of conservation tillage, survival of the family farm is more critical. Thus, understanding when tillage is required and determining how to implement tillage to compliment conservation tillage systems while having minimal impacts on the environment are needed if both the family farm and conservation tillage are expected to survive the threat of herbicide resistant weed. LONG TERM GOAL
  16. Objective Develop an economically effective integrated program for the control of GR Palmer amaranth in cotton.
  17. Roundup applied three times starting on Palmer provided no control
  18. Four Tillage Options Deep Inversion (12 to 16 inches) Strip into weeds
  19. Four Tillage Options Deep inversion followed by Rye Heavy residue (1.5 bu/A)
  20. Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Palmer amaranth control of 95% achieved by herbicide program!
  21. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage and cover crop residue. 2009 & 2010. 21 DAP.* 0 d 50 c 60 b Weeds *No herbicide Inversion + rye Deep inversion 75 a Rye %
  22. In the rye, control loss was in the strip
  23. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage, cover crop residue, and herbicides. 2009 & 2010 At harvest.* 76 b 78 b Weeds *RR System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Roundup + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA Inversion + rye Deep inversion 94 a Rye % 59 c
  24. Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Weeds Deep Tillage Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage. Macon County, GA. 2009.
  25. Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Weeds Rye cover Palmer amaranth response to cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009.
  26. Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Weeds Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage and cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009. Deep tillage Rye cover crop
  27. GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield (lb/A) in the Roundup system.* 592 c 690 b Weeds *RR System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Roundup + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA Inversion + rye Deep inversion 790 a Rye 480 d
  28. Dryland Conservation Tillage Prowl + Reflex PRE Roundup + Dual POST Diuron + MSMA PD Prowl + Reflex PRE Ignite + Dual POST Diuron + MSMA PD
  29. Applications must be timely with Ignite
  30. GR Palmer amaranth control by tillage, cover crop residue, and herbicides. 2009 & 2010. At harvest.* 99 a 99 a Weeds *Ignite System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Ignite + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA Inversion + rye Deep inversion 99 a Rye % 94 b
  31. 680 bc 710 ab Weeds *Ignite System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Ignite + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA Inversion + rye Deep inversion 770 a Rye % 625 c GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield in the Ignite system. 2009 & 2010.*
  32. Strip tillage into weeds Strip tillage into rye. Strip tillage into rye/deep turning. ON FARM STUDIES Tillage/Cover Crop Options
  33. Influencing Palmer Emergence (On farm study, TN) Weeds Rye (large) Deep Turn + Rye 101 10 sq m 45 10 sq m 44 10 sq m
  34. Influencing Palmer Emergence (On farm 10 acre study, Macon Co. Georgia) Weeds Rye (large) Deep Turn + Rye Gram. + Direx BD; Prowl + Reflex PRE; RU + Dual POST; Direx + MSMA layby 8242 plants/A 4371 plants/A 446 plants/A
  35. No Deep Tillage Deep Turn No Herbicide Treatment Number of Palmer Amaranth Plants During Early Season. Macon Co., Georgia 2008.*
  36. Influence of burial depth on Palmer amaranth emergence Keeley et al. (1987) reported 36-44% emergence at 0-1, 7% at 2, and 2% at 3.
  37. Palmer amaranth seed germination as affected by length of burial
  38. Palmer amaranth seed germination as affected by depth of burial
  39. Work together! Integrated programs are required to control GR Palmer amaranth in cotton. Deep turning, rye cover, and deep turing + rye will greatly improve control. Incentives to assist in grower adoption of heavy residue. Find more funds to expand NRCS Pilot Program. SUSTAINING COTTON PRODUCTION
  40. Comments